sangam age indian history


Sangam Age : Sangam means confluence or assemblage of literary figures. This literature describes the origin and growth of Pandya, cholas, and chera. The language of Sangam literature was Tamil. Megasthene’s indica referred about Pandya state. Hathigumpha inscription of king kharvela mentions about the league of three kings of Tamil Pradesh by king Kharvela.

Chera kingdom:

In Ashoka’s inscription the Chera dynasty is referred as Keralaputra who ruled over the region which included north Travancore, Kochin, and Southern Malabar. Panji was the capital. Arrow and bow were the royal insignia of chera state. The chera rulers had trade relation, particularly with Roman empire. Mujiris was the famous port and a centre for indo-roman trade.

Chola dynasty:

Most prominent rulers of Sangam age. Their royal insignia was a tiger (Bagh). The chola state also called Cholamandalam was situated to the north east of Pandya kingdom between pennar and velar rivers. Which correspond to modern Tanjore and Tiruchirapalli district. Uraiyar was a trade centre.

Pandya Dynasty:

The Pandya ruled over the far south and south-east region of Indian peninsula which included present day Trinnevalli, Ramanad and Madura district of Tamilnadu. Madurai was their capital. Fish was their royal insignia. They had diplomatic relation with Roman Empire. They sent their ambassador to King Augustees court.

Important Notes:

  • Peripuls gives a vivid description of foreign trade during Sangam age. Internal trade was carried on in a big way and on barter system.
  • Murugan was the most famous god of Sangam age.
  • The first Sangam was held in Madurai and presided by sage Agastya.
  • The second Sangam was presided by Tolakappiya and was held at Kapatpuram.
  • The third Sangam was presided over by Nakkiyar and was held at North Madurai.
  • Tolkappiyam is the book of the grammar written by Tolkappiya.
  • Sage Agastya has the credit of introducing Vedic culture in the south.
  • llanngo Adigal written by Shilppadikaram is called lliad of Tamil and it discussed the love of Kovalan and Kannagi.
  • Manimekalai is called the odyssey of Tamil,  written by Sattanmar.

Sangam Age Important Points.

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